鎳 (Ni)

一般特性

标志 Ni
原子序数 28
原子量 58.6934
10 (镍族)
VIIIA (IUPAC), VIII (CAS)
Solid, Ferromagnetic, Conductor, Transition Metal, Metal, Stable, Natural
时期 4
d

物理性质

密度 8.9 g/cm3
原子体积 6.6 cm3/mole
原子半径 1.24 angstroms
共价半径 121 pm
Crust Abundance 0.0089%
Crystal Structure Cubic: Face centered
Color Gray

能量

电负性 1.9 (鲍林标度)
电子亲和势 112 kJ/mol
第一电离能 737 kJ/mol
第2 Ionization Energy 1753.0 kJ/mol
第3 Ionization Energy 3395 kJ/mol
第4 Ionization Energy 5300 kJ/mol
第5 Ionization Energy 7339 kJ/mol
第6 Ionization Energy 10400 kJ/mol
第7 Ionization Energy 12800 kJ/mol
第8 Ionization Energy 15600 kJ/mol
第9 Ionization Energy 18600 kJ/mol
第10 Ionization Energy 21670 kJ/mol
第11 Ionization Energy 30970 kJ/mol
第12 Ionization Energy 34000 kJ/mol
第13 Ionization Energy 37100 kJ/mol
第14 Ionization Energy 41500 kJ/mol
第15 Ionization Energy 44800 kJ/mol
第16 Ionization Energy 48100 kJ/mol
第17 Ionization Energy 55101 kJ/mol
第18 Ionization Energy 58570 kJ/mol
第19 Ionization Energy 148700 kJ/mol
第20 Ionization Energy 159000 kJ/mol
第21 Ionization Energy 169400 kJ/mol
第22 Ionization Energy 182700 kJ/mol
第23 Ionization Energy 194000 kJ/mol
第24 Ionization Energy 205600 kJ/mol
第25 Ionization Energy 221400 kJ/mol
第26 Ionization Energy 231490 kJ/mol
第27 Ionization Energy 992718 kJ/mol
第28 Ionization Energy 1039668 kJ/mol
比热容 0.444 J g−1 K−1
导热系数 90.7 W·m−1·K−1

电子与氧化

氧化态 +2,3
每客电子 2 8 16 2
电子构型 [Ar] 3d8 4s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d8 4s2
轨道图
1s
↿⇂
2s
↿⇂
2p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3s
↿⇂
3p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3d
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿ 
↿ 
4s
↿⇂
4p
 
 
 
4d
 
 
 
 
 
4f
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Nuclear

放射性

媒体

鎳 (Ni)的波尔原子模型
Description
Hard, malleable, silvery-white metal. Found in the earth's crust in portions averaging 70 ppm. It can be polished to a lustrous finish. Virtually no corrosion under normal conditions.
Uses
Used in electroplating and metal alloys because of its resistance to corrosion. Also in nickel-cadmium batteries; as a catalyst and for coins.
Sources
Chiefly found in pentlandite [(Ni,Fe)9S8] ore. The metal is produced by heating the ore in a blast furnace which replaces the sulfur with oxygen. The oxides are then treated with an acid that reacts with the iron not the nickel.
Pronounciation (English)
NIK-l

翻译

Afrikaans Nikkel
Aragonese Níquel
العربية نيكل
Armãneashte Nichelu
asturianu Níquel
azərbaycan dili Nikel
български Никел
বাংলা নিকেল
brezhoneg Nikel
bosanski Nikl, ²Nikal
Byelorussian Нікель
Cebuano Nikel
čeština Nikl, Pochvistík†
Chuvash Никель
Cymraeg Níquel
dansk Nikkel
Deutsch Nickel
Ελληνικά Νικελιο
English Nickel
esperanto Nikelo
español Níquel
eesti Nikkel
euskara Nikela
فارسی نیکل
suomi Nikkeli
føroyskt Nikkul
français Nickel
furlan Nichel
West-Frysk Nikkel
Gaeilge Nicil
Gàidhlig Nicil
galego Níquel
ગુજરાતી નિકલનો
Gaelg Nickyl
Hakka Chinese Ngiap (鎳)
עברית ניקל
हिन्दी निकेल
hrvatski Nikal
magyar Nikkel
հայերեն Նիկել
Indonesia Nikel
íslenska Nikull
italiano Nichelio
日本語 ニッケル
ქართული ნიკელი
کٲشُر Nikel
қазақ тілі Никель
한국어 니켈
Kurdish Nîkel
Komi Никель
kernewek Nykel
кыргызча Никель
Latin Niccolum
Lëtzebuergesch Nickel
Lombard Níchel
lingála Nikɛ́li
lietuvių Nikelis
latviešu Niķelis
Mari Никель
Maori Konukōreko
македонски Никел
മലയാളം നിക്കല്
монгол Никель
Мокшан Никиль
Bahasa Melayu Nikel
Malti Nikil
Nahuatl Iztāctepoztli
Nederlands Nikkel
norsk Nikkel
Occitan Niquèl
ирон Згъæры мыггаг
polski Nikiel
português Níquel
Runasimi Nikil
română Nichel
русский Никель
slovenčina Nikel
slovenščina Nikelj
Samoan Niklimi
Samogitian Nėkelis
shqip Nikel, ²Nikli
српски Никал
Southern Sotho Nikele
svenska Nickel
Kiswahili Nikeli
தமிழ் நிக்கல்
Tajik Никел
ไทย นิกเกิล
Türkçe Nikel
ئۇيغۇرچە نىكېل
українська Нікель
o‘zbek Nikel
Tiếng Việt Nikel
Võro Nikli
中文

历史

发现地为
1751
发现人为
Axel Fredrik Cronstedt
发现地为
Sweden
词的起源
From the German word "kupfernickel" meaning Devil's copper or St Nicholas's (Old Nick's) copper