鉀 (K)

一般特性

标志 K
原子序数 19
原子量 39.0983
1 (碱金属或锂/氢族)
IA (IUPAC), IA (CAS)
Solid, Conductor, Alkali Metal, Metal, Stable, Natural
时期 4
s

物理性质

密度 0.86 g/cm3
原子体积 45.3 cm3/mole
原子半径 2.35 angstroms
共价半径 196 pm
Crust Abundance 1.5%
Crystal Structure Cubic: Body centered
Color Silver

能量

电负性 0.8 (鲍林标度)
电子亲和势 48.4 kJ/mol
第一电离能 419 kJ/mol
第2 Ionization Energy 3052 kJ/mol
第3 Ionization Energy 4420 kJ/mol
第4 Ionization Energy 5877 kJ/mol
第5 Ionization Energy 7975 kJ/mol
第6 Ionization Energy 9590 kJ/mol
第7 Ionization Energy 11343 kJ/mol
第8 Ionization Energy 14944 kJ/mol
第9 Ionization Energy 16963.7 kJ/mol
第10 Ionization Energy 48610 kJ/mol
第11 Ionization Energy 54490 kJ/mol
第12 Ionization Energy 60730 kJ/mol
第13 Ionization Energy 68950 kJ/mol
第14 Ionization Energy 75900 kJ/mol
第15 Ionization Energy 83080 kJ/mol
第16 Ionization Energy 93400 kJ/mol
第17 Ionization Energy 99710 kJ/mol
第18 Ionization Energy 444880 kJ/mol
第19 Ionization Energy 476063 kJ/mol
比热容 0.757 J g−1 K−1
导热系数 102.5 W·m−1·K−1

电子与氧化

氧化态 1
每客电子 2 8 8 1
电子构型 [Ar] 4s1
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1
轨道图
1s
↿⇂
2s
↿⇂
2p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3s
↿⇂
3p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3d
 
 
 
 
 
4s
↿ 
4p
 
 
 
4d
 
 
 
 
 
4f
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Nuclear

放射性

媒体

鉀 (K)的波尔原子模型
鉀 (K)刘易斯点图
Description
Soft, waxy, silver-white metal. Eighth most abundant element in the earth's crust (20,900 ppm). Occurs only in compounds.
Uses
Used as potash in making glass & soap. Also as saltpeter, potassium nitrate (KNO3) to make explosives and to color fireworks in mauve. Formerly called kalium (K). Vital to function of nerve and muscle tissures.
Sources
Found in minerals like carnallite [(KMgCl3).6H2O] & sylvite (potassium chloride, KCL). Pure metal is produced by the reaction of hot potassium chloride and sodium vapors in a special retort.
Pronounciation (English)
pe-TASS-i-em

翻译

Afrikaans Kalium
Aragonese Potasio
العربية بوتاسيوم
Armãneashte Caliumu
asturianu Potasiu
azərbaycan dili Kalium
български Калий
বাংলা পটাসিয়াম
brezhoneg Potasiom
bosanski Kalij[um]
Byelorussian Калій
Cebuano Potasio
čeština Draslík
Chuvash Кали
Cymraeg Potassi
dansk Kalium
Deutsch Kalium
Ελληνικά Καλιο
English Potassium
esperanto Kalio
español Potasio
eesti Kaalium
euskara Potasioa
فارسی پتاسیم
suomi Kalium
føroyskt Kalium
français Potassium
furlan Potassi
West-Frysk Kalium
Gaeilge Potaisiam
Gàidhlig Potaisiam
galego Potasio
ગુજરાતી પોટૅશિયમનો
Gaelg Potashum
Hakka Chinese Kap (鉀)
עברית אשלגן
हिन्दी पोटैशियम
hrvatski Kalij
magyar Kálium
հայերեն Կալիում
Indonesia Kalium
íslenska Kalín
italiano Potassio
日本語 カリウム
ქართული კალიუმი
کٲشُر Kali
қазақ тілі Калий
한국어 칼륨, 2포타슘
Kurdish Qelye
Komi Калий
kernewek Calyum
кыргызча Калий
Latin Kalium
Lëtzebuergesch Kalium
Lombard Putàss
lingála Potasu
lietuvių Kalis
latviešu Kālijs
Mari Калий
Maori Konurehu
македонски Калиум
മലയാളം പൊട്ടാസ്യം
монгол Кали
Мокшан Кали
Bahasa Melayu Kalium
Malti Potassju[m]
Nahuatl Potasio
Nederlands Kalium
norsk Kalium
Occitan Potassi
ирон Калий
polski Potas
português Potássio
Runasimi Kalyu
română Potasiu, ²Kaliu
русский Калий
slovenčina Draslík
slovenščina Kalij
Samoan Kalimi
Samogitian Kalis
shqip Kalium
српски Калијум
Southern Sotho Potassiamo
svenska Kalium
Kiswahili Kali
தமிழ் பொட்டாசியம்
Tajik Калий
ไทย โพแทสเซียม
Türkçe Potasyum
ئۇيغۇرچە كالىي
українська Калій
o‘zbek Kaliy
Tiếng Việt Kali
Võro Kaalium
中文

历史

发现地为
1807
发现人为
Sir Humphrey Davy
发现地为
England
词的起源
From the English word "potash" (pot ashes) and the Arabic word "qali" meaning alkali (the origin of the symbol K comes from the Latin word "kalium")